Lesson 6

CHAPTER SIX

ROMANS

OBJECTIVES:

Upon completion of this chapter you will be able to:

C Name the author of the book of Romans.

C Identify to whom the book of Romans was written.

C State the purpose for the book of Romans.

C Write the Key Verses of the book of Romans from memory.

C State the Life and Ministry Principle for the book of Romans.

INTRODUCTION

AUTHOR: Paul

TO WHOM: Believers in Rome.

PURPOSE: To present the meaning of the Gospel in relation to law, prophecy, and the universal need of man for justification by faith.

KEY VERSES: 1:16-17

LIFE AND MINISTRY PRINCIPLE: The just shall live by faith.

MAIN CHARACTERS: Paul, Adam , Abraham , Isaac (See list of names in chapter 1 6.)
 
OUTLINE

I. Introduction: 1:1-7

A. The messenger: Paul: 1:1-6

l. Servant of Jesus Christ.

2. Called as an apostle.

3. Separated to the Gospel of God.

B. The readers: 1:7

l. Believers in Rome.

2. The beloved of God.

3. Those called to be saints.

C. The greeting: Grace and peace from God and Jesus: 1 :7

II. Paul’s relation to the Romans: 1:8-16

A. His thanksgiving for them : 1:8

B. His prayer for them: 1:9-10

C. His desire to visit them: 1:11-16

1. The desire: 1:11

2. The purpose of the desire: 1:11-12

3. Hindrances to its fulfillment: 1:13

4. The motivation behind the desire: 1:14-16

a. Desire to bear fruit: 1: 14

b. His feeling of obligation to all Gentiles: 1:14

c. His readiness to preach at Rome: 1:15

d. His confidence in the Gospel message: 1:16

III. Statement of the theme of the book: The Gospel of power reveals the righteousness

of God: 1:16-17

Part One: Doctrinal

The Righteousness of God as revealed in the Gospel
 1:18-8:39

I. The need for righteousness because of universal sin: 1:18-3:20

A. A condemnation of the Gentile world: 1:18-32

l. The wrath of God against sin: 1:18

2. Reasons for the wrath of God: 1:19-23

a. Their knowledge of God leaves them without excuse: 1:19-20.

b. Their corruption of the knowledge of God confirms their guilt:

1: 21-23

3. The wrath of God: 1:24-32

a. They are given up to uncleanness: 1:24-25

b. They are given up to evil passions: 1:26-27

c. They are given up to a reprobate mind: 1:28-32

(l) Consequences of their choice: 1:28

(2) The description of their condition: 1: 28-32

B. The condemnation of the Jew: 2:1 -3:8

1. The principle of divine judgment: 2:1-16

a. The judgment of God according to truth: 2:1-5

(1) The guilt of the one judging others: 2 :1

(2) The principle of judgment: 2:2

(3) An appeal to the guilty: 2:3-5

b. The judgment of God according to works: 2:6-15

(1) The principle of judgment: 2:6

(2) The two classes in the judgment: 2:7-12

(3) Obedience to light as the test in judgment: 2:13-15

c. The judgment in relation to Paul’s Gospel: 2:16

2. The Jew’s moral failure: 2:17-29

a. Claims of the Jew: 2:17-20

b. Refutation of the claims of the Jew: 2:21-24

c. Failure to live up to responsibilities : 2 : 2 5 – 2 9

(l) Of circumcision: 2:25

(2) Of obedience: 2:26-27

(3) A true and false view of a Jew: 2:28-29

3. The Jew’s objections: 3:1-8

a. The question of the Jews: 3:1-4

(1) The question: 3:1

(2) The answer: 3:2-4

(3) The objection: 3:5

(4) Denial of the objection: 3:6-8

C. Condemnation of the whole world: 3:9-20

1. The charge that all have sinned: 3:9

2. The proof of universal sin from Scripture: 3:10-18

a. The character of sin: 3:10-12

b. The practice of sin: 3:13-17

(1) In speech: 3:13-14

(2) In conduct: 3:15-17

c. The reason for sin: 3:18

3. The application to the Jew who has the law: 3:19-20

II. The righteousness of God in justification: 3:21-5:21

A. Justification by faith : 3:21-26

1. It is the manifestation of the righteousness of God: 3:21

2. The description of justification by faith: 3:21-26

a. Its relation to the Old Testament: 3:21

b. Availability through faith: 3: 22-23

c. Its basis in Christ’s redemption : 3 : 2 4- 25

d. The demonstration of God’s justice: 3:25-26

B. Summary of the doctrine of justification: 3:27-31

1. The exclusion of personal merit: 3:27-28

2. The presentation of God’s character: 3:29-30

3. The establishment of the law: 3:31

C. The proof of justification by faith from Scripture: 4:1-25

1. Abraham’s justification: 4:1-12

a. The question about Abraham’s experience: 4:1

b. The means of his justification: 4:2-3

c. The comparison of the two ways of justification: 4:4-5

d. The confirmation from David’s testimony: 4:6-8

2. Justification by faith apart from circumcision: 4: 9-12

a. The question about circumcision: 4:9-10

b. The answers from Abraham’s condition: 4:10

c. Abraham’s circumcision: 4:11-12

3. The promise achieved by faith: 4:13-17

a. The means of attaining the inheritance: 4:13

b. The reason for the faith method: 4:14-15

c. The recipients of the promise: 4:16

d. The harmony with Scripture: 4:17

4. The example of the faith of Abraham: 4:17-25

a. The object of his faith: 4:17

b. The nature of his faith: 4:18-21

c. The reward of his faith: 4:22

d. The importance of his faith: 4:23-25

D. The permanency of justification: 5:1-11

1. The present results of justification: 5:1-2

2. The inability of trials to destroy this hope: 5:3-5

a. The effect of trials: 5:3-4

b. The experience of God’s love : 5:5

3. The love of God in Christ confirms this hope: 5:6-11

a. God’s love: 5:6-10

(l) The demonstration of His love for the lost: 5:6-8

(2) The assurance of salvation: 5:9-10

b. The experience of reconciliation: 5:11

E. The foundation of righteousness: 5:12-21

l. Two representative men: 5:12-14

a. The result of Adam’s act: 5:12-14

b. The headship of Adam as a type of Christ: 5:14

2. The differences between Adam and Christ: 5:15-17

a. In quality: 5 :1 5

b. In operation: 5:16

c. In results : 5 : 1 7

3. The similarities of Adam and Christ: 5:18-21

a. Similarity in scope: 5:18

b. Similarity in operation: 5:19

c. Similarity in measure: 5:20-21

III. The righteousness of God in sanctification: 6:1-8:39

A. The believer’s relationship to sin: 6:1-23

1. Death to the principle of sin: 6:1-14

a. The question of remaining in sin: 6:1

b. Rejection of the suggestion: 6:2

c. Our position in baptism: 6:3-11

(l) The question of ignorance concerning baptism : 6:3

(2) The importance of baptism : 6:4

(3) The application to believers: 6:5-10

(4) The call to this position: 6:11

2. The believer’s death to the practice of sin: 6:15-23

a. The question of continued sin: 6:15

b. Rejection of the suggestion: 6:15

c. An answer from the illustration of slavery: 5: 16-23

(1) The question concerning two services: 6:16

(2) The believer’s experience with both services: 6:17-18

(3) An appeal for the new position: 6:19

(4) The contrast between the two: 6:20-22

(5) The result of the two services: 6:23

B. The believer’s relationship to the law: 7:1-25

1. Dead to the law but alive to God: 7:1 -6

a. The dominion of the law : 7:1

b. An illustration from the law of marriage: 7:2-3

c. The application of the principle to the believer: 7:4-6

2. The inability of the law to deliver from sin: 7:7-25

a. The relation of the law to sin: 7:7-13

(1) The nature of the law is not sinful: 7:7

(2) The revelation of sin through the law: 7:7-13

(3) The work of sin through the law: 7:8-11

(4) The law’s revelation of the sinfulness of sin: 7:12-13

b. The law’s inability to give victory over sin: 7:14-25

(l) The first confession of defeat by sin: 7:14-17

(2) The second confession of indwelling sin: 7:18-20

(3) The third confession and the way of victory: 7:21-25

C. The believer’s victory through the Spirit: 8:1-39

1. Deliverance from the power of the flesh by the Spirit: 8:1-11

a. The believer’s freedom from condemnation: 8:1-2

b. The basis for the deliverance: 8:3

c. The purpose of the deliverance: 8:4

d. The method of the deliverance: 8:5-10

(1) The two classes of men : 8:5

(2) The two minds: 8:6-7

(3) The two spheres: Flesh and spirit: 8:8-11

e. The deliverance from physical death: 8:11

2. The life of sonship through the Spirit: 8:12-17

a. The obligation to live in the Spirit: 8:12-13

b. Evidence of life in the Spirit: 8:14-17

(1) The leading of the Spirit: 8:14

(2) The nature of the Spirit: 8:15

(3) The witness of the Spirit: 8:16

(4) The heirship of the believer: 8:17

3. Glorification in present suffering: 8:1 8-30

a. The evaluation of present suffering: 8:18

b. Assurances of glorification: 8:19-30

(1) Assurance from creation: 8:19-22

(2) Assurance from the present hope: 8:23-25

(3) Assurance by the Spirit: 8:26-27

(4) Assurance by God at work in the circumstances of life:

8: 28

(5) Assurance by God’s continued working in us: 8:29-30

4. The assurance of the believer’s victory: 8:31-39

a. The believer’s relation to God: 8:31-33

b. The believer’s relation to Christ: 8:34

c. The believer’s relation to circumstances of evil: 8:35-39

(l) The inability of evils of the visible world to separate from

Christ: 8: 3 5-37

(2) The inability of evils from the invisible world to separate

from Christ: 8:38-39

Part Two: Historical

The righteousness of God in His dealings with Israel and all mankind

9:1-11:36

I. The sorrow of Paul because of Israel’s rejection: 9:1-5

A. His feeling: 9:1

B. The intensity of his feeling: 9:2-3

C. The basis for his feeling: 9:3-5

II. The rejection of Israel and God’s sovereignty: 9:6-29

A. The rejection of Israel and God’s promise: 9:6-13

l. The denial of the failure of God’s Word: 9 :6

2. The proof that the promise is not based on physical descent: 9:6-13

a. Proof from the family of Abraham : 9:6-9

b. Proof from the family of Isaac: 9:10-13

B. The rejection of Israel and God’s justice: 9:14-29

1. The justice of God in the manifestation of His will: 9:14-18

a. The question of God’s justice: 9:14

b. The revelation of God’s will: 9:15-17

(1) His mercy revealed according to His will: 9:15-16

(2) His judgment is exercised according to His will: 9:17

c. God’s action according to His will: 9:18

2. The sovereign power of God: 9:19-29

a. The question and the rebuke: 9:19-20

b. The right of God to act: 9:20-21

c. The exercise of God’s power: 9:22-24

(1) His patience with the wicked: 9:22

(2) His revelation of glory: 9:22-24

d. Anticipation of the call of Jew and Gentile: 9:25-29

(1) The call of the Gentile: 9:25-26

(2) Announcement concerning the fate of Israel: 9:27-29

III. The rejection of Israel: 9:30-10:21

A. The failure of Israel to achieve righteousness: 9:30-33

1. The fact of Israel’s failure : 9 : 3 0 – 3 1

2. The reason for Israel’s failure: 9:32

3. An explanation of Israel’s failure: 9:32

4. The confirmation of the results: 9:32

B. The refusal by Israel to accept God’s righteousness: 10:1-11

1. The cause for Israel’s rejection: 10:1-4

2. The nature of righteousness by faith: 10:5-11

a. The comparison of two methods for righteousness: 10 :5-8

(l) Righteousness through keeping the law : 10:5

(2) Righteousness through faith: 10:6-8

b. The realization of righteousness through faith: 10:9-10

c. Scriptural assurance of righteousness by faith: 10:11

C. The neglect by Israel of the universal Gospel: 10:12-21

l. The fact of a universal Gospel: 10:12-13

2. The proclamation of the universal Gospel: 10:14-15

3. The reaction of Israel to this universal Gospel: 10:16-21

a. Disregarded: 10:16-17

b. Rejected: 10:18-21

IV. The rejection of Israel and God’s purpose for their future: 11:1-32

A. The rejection of Israel left a remnant: 11:1-10

1. The denial that God has cut off His people: 11:1-2

2. The proof of a remaining remnant: 11:2-6

a. The proof from Scripture: 11:2-4

b. The proof from the existence of the remnant: 11:5-6

3. The contrast of the remnant with the nation: 11:7-10

B. The rejection of Israel is not permanent: 11:11-32

1. Israel’s condition : 1 1 :1 1 – 1 6

a. The fall of Israel is not permanent: 11:11

b. The fall of Israel is overruled for Gentile salvation: 11:11

c. The restoration of Israel will bring universal blessing: 11:12-15

d. The indication of Israel’s future from the past: 11:16

2. The warning to the Gentiles: 11:17-24

a. Against boastfulness: 11:17-18

b. Against pride: 11:19-21

c. Against presumption: 11:22-24

3. The argument for the restoration of Israel: 11:23-24

4. The prophecy concerning Israel’s future restoration: 11:25-32

a. The revelation concerning Israel’s restoration: 11:25-26

b. Harmony of the restoration with prophecy: 11:26-27.

c. Harmony with the divine call of Israel: 11:28-29

d. Harmony with God’s purposes: 11:30-32

V. The benediction in praise of God: 11:33-36

A. The declaration concerning God: 11:33

B. The questions about God: 11:34-35

C. Praise to God: 11:36

Part Three: Practical

The righteousness of God applied to the life of the believer

12:1-15:13

I. The believer in relation to God: 12:1-2

A. Self-presentation to God : 12:1

B. Continued experience of transformation: 1 2:2

II. The believer in relation to the church: 12:3-13

A. The use of spiritual gifts with humility: 12:3-8

l. The need for humility: 1 2:3

2. The relation of the members to each other in the Body: 12 :4-5

3. The expression of humility in service: 12 :6-8

a. The diversity of the gifts given: 12 :6

b. The ministering gifts: 12:6-8

B. The practice of love to members in the church: 12:9-13

l. The nature of this love: 12 :9

2. The manifestations of such love: 12:9-13

a. Without dissimulation: 1 2:9

b. Abhor that which is evil: 12:9

c. Cleave to that which is good: 1 2:9

d. Be kindly affectioned to each other: 12:10

e. Show brotherly love: 12:10

f. In honor prefer one another: 12:10

g. Do not be slothful in business: 12:11

h. Be fervent in spirit: 12:11

i. Serve the Lord: 12:11

j. Rejoice in hope: 12:12

k. Be patient in tribulation: 12:12

l. Be continually instant in prayer: 12:12

m. Distribute to the needs of the saints: 12:13

n. Be given to hospitality: 12:13

o. Bless them which persecute you: 12:14

p. Rejoice with them that rejoice: 12:15

q. Weep with them that weep: 12:15

r. Be of the same mind one to another: 12:16

s. Mind not high things , but condescend to men of low estate: 1 2:16

t. Be not wise in your own conceits: 12:16

u. Recompense no man evil for evil: 12:17

v. Provide things honest in the sight of all men: 12:17

w. Live peaceably with all men: 12:18

x. Avenge not yourselves: 12:19

y. Respond in love and care to your enemy: 12:20

z. Do not be overcome with evil but overcome evil with good:

12:21

III. The believer in relation to mankind: 12:14-21

A. Love your enemies: 12:14

B. Love towards the interest of others: 12:15

C. Love towards associates: 12:16

D. Love towards a sinful world: 12:17-21

1. The passive bearing of evil: 12:17-19

2. The active reaction toward evil: 12:20-21

IV. The believer in relation to the state: 13:1-14

A. The believer’s duties to the government: 13:1-7

1. The duty of obedience to the government: 13 :1

2. The reason for obedience to the government: 13:1

3. Refusing obedience to the government: 13:2

4. The motives for obedience to the state: 13:3-5

a. From the function of the government: 13 :3-4

b. From Christian conscience: 13 :5

5. An illustration of obedience to government: 13:6

6. The call for obedience to the government: 13:7

B. The believer’s duties to fellow citizens: 13:8-10

C. The believer’s motivation in the hope of the return of Jesus: 13:11-14

1. An appeal to alertness: 13:11

2. The reason for alertness: 13:11-12

3. An exhortation for alertness: 13:12-13

4. The provision for alertness: 13:14

V. The believer in relation to a weaker brother: 14:1-15:13

A. The warning against judging a brother: 14:1-12

1. The proper attitude toward the weaker brother : 14:1

2. The areas of difficulty: 14:2-5

a. The first problem and its adjustment: 14:2-4

b. The second problem and its adjustment: 14 :5

3. Making the adjustment: 14 :6

4. The motivation: 14:7-9

5. The rebuke for judging a brother: 14:10-12

a. The questions of rebuke: 14:10

b. The basis for the rebuke: 14:10-12

c. The prohibition against the violation of a brother’s conscience:

14:13-23

(1) Exhortation not to judge one another: 14:13

(2) The apostle’s conviction concerning foods: 14:14

(3) The application of this conviction to conduct: 14:15-20

(4) The guiding principle for a strong brother: 14:21

(5) An appeal to both strong and weak: 14:22-23

B. The effort toward unity by following Christ’s example: 15:1-13

1. The obligation of a strong brother: 14:1

2. The appeal for unity from Christ’s example: 4:2-4

a. The statement of the appeal: 14 :2

b. Arguments for the appeal: 14:3

(1) The example of Christ: 14 :3

(2) The purpose of the Scriptures: 14:4

3. The request of the Apostle: 15:5-6

4. The command to receive one another: 1 5:7

5. The illustration from Christ’s relation to Jew and Gentile: 15:8-12

a. The ministry of Christ: 15:8-9

b. Scriptural proof: 15:9-12

6. The Apostolic prayer: 15:13

The Conclusion

15:14-16:20

I. Personal matters: 15:14-33

A. Paul’s explanation for writing: 15:14-21

1. His attitude in writing: 15:14-16

a. His recognition of them: 15:14

b. His boldness in writing them: 15:15

c. The statement of his commission: 15:16

2. His authorization for writing: 15:17-21

a. His personal boasting: 15:17

b. His humility in speaking of his work: 15:18

c. His ministry to the Gentiles: 15:18-19

d. His aim in selecting a field of labor: 15:20-21

B. His personal plans at the time of writing: 15:22-29

1. Unfulfilled plans: 15:22-24

a. His plans to visit Rome: 15:22-23

b. His plans for Spain: 15:24

2. His immediate plans: 15:25-27

a. His present plans: 15:25

b. Significance of his present plans: 15:26-27

3. His plans for the future: 15:28-29

C. His request for their prayers: 15:30-33

1. The request for prayer: 15:30-32

2. The benediction: 15:33

II. Friendship matters: 16:1-23

A. A commendation of Phoebe: 16:1-2

B. The greeting to friends at Rome: 16:3-16

1. Greetings to individuals at Rome: 16:3-15

2. Greetings among believers at Rome: 16:16

3. Greeting from the churches to the Roman believers: 16:16

C. The warning to believers at Rome: 16:17-20

1. Contents of the warning: 16:17

2. Description of the men of whom he is warning: 16:18

3. The reason for the warning: 6:19

4. The promise of victory: 16:20

5. The benediction: 16:20

D. Greetings from his companions: 16:21-24

III. The concluding benediction: 16:25-27

A. The recipient of the praise: 16:25-27

1. The One able to establish them: 16:25-29

2. The only wise God, through Christ: 16:27

B. The praise: 16:27